• Introductory period. Many option ARMs have a 1-month or 3-month introductory period at the beginning of the loan. During this period, lenders use a lower interest rate to calculate your payments. For some I-O mortgage payment loans, this introductory period lasts 1, 3, or 5 years.
• Interest rate adjustment period. Most payment-option ARMs have interest rates that adjust monthly after the introductory period. You could find that the interest you owe increases even though your minimum payment stays the same each month, adding to your negative amortization. Typical interest rate adjustment periods for an I-O mortgage are monthly, every 6 months, or once a year.
• Payment adjustments. Most I-O payment mortgages and payment-option ARMs have payments that adjust once a year. In addition, most of the adjustments on payment-option ARMs are limited by a payment cap, usually 7.5%. Keep in mind that payment caps do not apply when your loan is recalculated at the normal recalculation period. Payment caps also do not apply if your balance grows beyond 110% or 125% of your original mortgage amount.
• Recalculation period. With a payment-option ARM, your loan will be recalculated, or recast. The recalculation period is usually 5 years, but it can vary depending on the terms of your loan. When your loan is recalculated, the 7.5% payment cap does not apply, so you could see a large change in your monthly payment. After your loan is recalculated, you will still have the option to make a minimum payment. I-O loans are recalculated at the end of the option period (usually 3, 5, or 10 years); after that you will pay back both the principal and interest for the remaining term of the loan.
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